Wednesday, November 30, 2022
Common Foot Problems FOOT HEALTH

The Ultimate Guide to Nerve Pain on the Foot

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Many conditions can cause nerve pain on the foot. Peripheral neuropathy is an all-encompassing term that describes damage to the nerves in the feet. 

nerve pain on foot

Let’s discuss nerves for a minute…

Your brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system is made up of nerves that affect sensation and muscle function in your feet. 

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling unconscious activities such as your blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, etc. 

Nerves are made up of different types of axons. Nerves are responsible for light touch, pain, and temperature sensation that you experience in your foot. It is also responsible for vibration sensation and proprioception (your ability to be aware of movement in your body). 

nerve

If you suffer from neuropathy in your feet, you may experience losses of some of those things. Not only can you feel pain from neuropathy, but you may also struggle with balance issues. 

You may also not be able to tell if something is hot or cold. This can be damaging as it can put you at a higher risk of developing burns or frostbite on your feet. 

Neuropathy can be frustrating and extremely difficult to live with. It can also be difficult to treat. 

In addition to peripheral neuropathy, nerve pain on the foot can occur due to a pinched nerve. 

Our feet carry us from point A to B daily. There are many locations in the feet where a pinched nerve can occur. 

In this article, we will discuss the common conditions that cause neuropathy and nerve impingement in the foot. 

Causes of Neuropathy

1) Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

diabetes

Many people suffer from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. With elevated blood sugar levels, nerve damage can occur. Volmer-Thole in the International Journal Of Molecular Sciences stated that nearly 50% of patients with diabetes develop neuropathy within 25 years of disease onset (1)

This is concerning because diabetic neuropathy can cause serious problems in your feet. 

Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy

  • Numbness in the foot

When you have neuropathy in your foot, you may step on objects and be unaware of it. For instance, when someone who doesn’t have neuropathy steps on a needle, their pain signals become activated and alert their brain of injury. 

In someone who has complete neuropathy, this pain is not felt by them. The person may not know that they even stepped on a needle. This can cause an ulcer to form, which can then lead to a skin infection. The skin infection can turn into a bone infection and lead to amputation. You can read more about diabetic foot ulcers in my blog post here.  

  • Inability to differentiate between hot and cold

Some people cannot differentiate between hot and cold due to neuropathy in the feet. Neuropathy from diabetes can also occur in the fingers. Simple things like taking a shower, soaking the feet, and even electric heated blankets can cause burns. People who have neuropathy need to be cautious when out in the cold weather to prevent things like frostbite. 

  • Pins and needles sensations/burning

Neuropathy can also cause pins and needle/burning sensations in the feet. This can be quite bothersome and can get worse with walking. This sensation can also last throughout the night, making it more difficult to fall asleep. 

  • Muscle weakness

Neuropathy can also affect the muscles of the feet. Your reflexes may not be strong and certain muscles can become weaker over time. This can cause balance issues in people.

If you have long-standing neuropathy, you may suddenly feel like you are struggling more with balance. This can put you at a higher risk of falling.  

How Is Diabetic Neuropathy Diagnosed?

Your doctor will do a physical exam to determine whether you have neuropathy. A Semmes-Weinstein monofilament wire 5.07/10g is a wire that’s used to check sensation in different parts of your feet. This can alert your doctor if you have numbness in your feet. 

tuning fork

Your doctor will also want to check the vibratory sensation in your foot using a 128Hz tuning fork. Being able to feel vibration is important. If you can’t feel the vibration in your feet, you could be at a higher risk of developing a foot ulcer. 

An interesting study done by Ennion in The South African Journal of Physiotherapy, did a case study on a patient who suffered from sensory peripheral neuropathy. The patient was instructed to wear a vibrating insole for 20 minutes a day for 35 days. Stimulating vibration in this patient’s feet improved the patient’s perception of vibration in his feet (2)

Improved vibration in the feet can help prevent foot ulcers.

Your doctor will also want to check if you can feel a sharp and dull sensation in your feet. Your doctor may break a Q-tip and check if you can feel the sharp side and the dull side of the Q-tip. If you can’t feel the difference between the sharp and dull side, you have neuropathy.

You should be sure to check the bottoms of your feet every day to make sure you don’t step on something. 

Your doctor will also want to check how you walk. By doing a gait exam, your doctor will be able to assess your foot structure for any foot deformities. He/she will also be able to determine whether you are struggling with balance when you walk. 

By assessing your foot structure and your gait, your doctor can provide recommendations on how to offload your foot using pads/shoes/insoles/braces.  

Treatment for Diabetic Neuropathy

Medications

medications

Experiencing constant nerve pain on the foot can affect your quality of life. It’s best to talk to your doctor regarding medications for neuropathy that may work for you. Certain antidepressants, Gabapentinoids, Tramadol, Lidocaine, and Capsaicin are good options for neuropathy (3)

Some of the common medications used to treat diabetic peripheral neuropathy include:

  • Gabapentin
  • Lyrica
  • Tramadol
  • Nortriptyline/Amitriptyline
  • Duloxetine
  • Topicals such as Lidocaine and Capsaicin

Your doctor may start you on oral medication in low doses initially to help reduce pain and help you sleep. However, it’s important to be cautious of side effects that can occur, such as fatigue. These side effects can be bothersome to some people. 

Your doctor may also suggest topical therapy for diabetic neuropathy. 

Lidocaine can be obtained in cream form or patch (Lidocaine 5% patch). This medication can help numb your feet and reduce pain.

You can obtain Aspercreme with Lidocaine 4% cream online. This can be beneficial for nerve pain, fairly cheap, and safe.

If you need stronger strength Lidocaine, such as the Lidocaine 5% patch, you will need a prescription.  

Whether you get the cream or the patch may depend on your intensity of nerve pain and location. For instance, if you have nerve pain on your toes, you may choose to use the Lidocaine numbing cream. However, if you feel nerve pain mostly at the top of your feet, the Lidocaine patch may be easier for you to apply and use. 

Capsaicin cream can be purchased over the counter or in prescription form (Capsaicin 8% patch). It has been used for the management of neuropathic pain (4). Capsaicin helps to decrease pain signals to the brain. 

capsaicin

However, Capsaicin is the active ingredient in chili peppers, so the cream can initially cause a burning sensation to occur. After application, make sure you don’t take a hot shower, as this can worsen your symptoms!

You can start out using the over-the-counter low dose Capsaicin 0.025% cream. It will take a few weeks to work. You will need to be monitored by your doctor if you use a prescription-strength Capsaicin. Make sure to discuss your plan of care with your physician. 

Other Treatments for Diabetic Neuropathy

  • Diabetic shoes/insoles

Diabetic shoes and inserts are specifically designed for patients who suffer from peripheral neuropathy. Diabetic shoes are designed to be extra-depth, and can appropriately accommodate patients’ feet.  

Diabetic plastazote inserts are great for people who have diabetic neuropathy because they help to prevent shear and blisters. Wearing a functional custom orthotic that a runner would wear would not be beneficial in a patient who has numbness or nerve pain on the foot.  

It’s important to get the right shoes/insoles, especially if you have a history of a foot ulcer. There are a variety of companies that dispense diabetic shoes and inserts. However, certain insurances may cover a free pair of shoes with 3 pairs of inserts a year. You can inquire about this with your doctor. 

Also, your doctor may recommend a custom plastazote insole for your unique foot structure. This means that if you have an ulcer in the ball of your foot, your orthotic can be designed uniquely for you with appropriate offloading to keep pressure away from your ulcer when you are walking. Many different adjustments can be made to a custom diabetic orthotic!

  • Braces/boots
diabetes shoe brace

Since neuropathy can cause weakness, you may have issues with drop foot. You may benefit from wearing an Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) brace. An AFO device helps with instability issues in your foot and ankle by maintaining your foot’s alignment and at the same time controlling motion.

You will need to see a Prosthetist to be fitted to ensure the brace is an appropriate fit and will fit into your shoes comfortably. 

Some people require additional support for their diabetic foot and may require specialized boots. 

A portion of diabetics will develop Charcot arthropathy. This is a syndrome that occurs due to neuropathy. People with Charcot may develop fractures in their bones which eventually cause foot collapse.

A Charcot Restraint Orthotic Walker (CROW) boot may be used to help stabilize the foot when walking. It reduces pressure and helps avoid future breaks in the bone.

2) Morton’s Neuroma

Another cause of nerve pain on the foot is neuroma. A Morton’s neuroma is a compression neuropathy that occurs on the ball of your foot. It is localized between your third and fourth knuckle bones (3rd intermetatarsal space). This nerve can become compressed in some people and cause pain. 

Causes

pinched nerve foot

The cause of neuromas is not completely known, however certain conditions such as overly flat feet, or high arch feet may aggravate the condition. 

Hammertoes may also be visible in people who have issues with neuromas. If you have hammertoes, the buckling effect of your curved toes may cause excessive pressure to be placed on the ball of your foot, causing nerve pain on your foot. 

Shoe gear, such as wearing shoes that are too narrow can cause worsening nerve pain on the foot. Even wearing high heels can cause excessive pressure to be placed on the ball of your foot. 

Although Morton’s neuroma is the most common form of neuroma seen in the third intermetatarsal space, it can form anywhere in the foot. The second intermetatarsal space is the second most common location, followed by the fourth intermetatarsal space. 

Make sure to pay attention to your symptoms and notify your doctor about where exactly you feel pain and which toes are affected. This can give your doctor clues on where the nerve may be pinched. 

Symptoms

  • Sharp or burning pain
  • Pain that starts in the ball of your foot and progresses into the toes
  • A feeling that your sock may be bunched up even though it is not

Diagnosis

A Morton’s neuroma can be diagnosed by your doctor with a physical exam. Your doctor will examine the different areas in your feet if he/she suspects a neuroma based on your symptoms. 

Your doctor will also want to order an X-ray to assess your foot structure and see where a pinched nerve may be more likely to occur. 

Your doctor may also choose to order an MRI to visualize the neuroma. The MRI allows your doctor to visualize your bones, nerves, and soft tissues. This becomes important for surgical planning.

Treatment

Non-Surgical
  • Neuroma pads

So you now know that Morton’s neuroma can form from excessive pressure on the ball of your foot. Neuroma pads are very beneficial because they can be placed on your foot or in your shoes to offload the ball of the foot. This will naturally help decrease pain with every step you take.

Some people prefer to place them directly on the foot. However, the pads must be applied in the correct location to be beneficial.

neuroma pad position
Notice how this neuroma pad is positioned underneath the metatarsal heads, and not pinching on the neuroma itself. This will help relief pressure from the neuroma. The wide portion of the pad should face the toes, while the narrow portion faces down.

Check out Dr. Jeffrey Oster’s youtube video on how to properly apply the pad to your inserts and shoes. 

You can even make your pads using ¼” felt

Here is an example where I made my own using a sheet of 1/4″ felt.

1/4 felt
neuroma pad felt
  • Orthotics

Orthotics can be beneficial to help alleviate discomfort associated with a neuroma. Neuroma pads can be incorporated inside the orthotic. You can move the orthotic from shoe to shoe. 

If you do buy an orthotic with a neuroma pad incorporated into it, I would highly recommend the Powerstep Pinnacle Plus orthotics.

These inserts are great because the neuroma pad is already inside the insert. Also, the insert has a firm but comfortable arch in it to help with arch support.

Depending on how much you walk, these inserts last around 6 months to 1 year. You will know when it’s time to replace them because the arch on the insert will start to collapse.

Also, remember to remove your shoe liners before placing the inserts in your shoes!

Pro tip: Since the orthotic will take pressure away from the ball of your feet, it may also help to prevent any calluses in your forefoot from becoming thicker.

  • Corticosteroid injections
steroid

There is evidence to suggest that corticosteroid reduces pain associated with Morton’s neuroma (5). The steroid is usually mixed with a local anesthetic to reduce pain and inflammation of the nerve. You can resume your activities normally after receiving a steroid shot. 

  • Physical therapy

Physical Therapy can help with the mobilization of the joints and soft tissues in your foot and thus reduce pain in the nerve.

Surgery 

If the neuroma pain continues despite conservative treatment, your doctor may opt to excise the nerve. If the surgical incision is made on the top of the foot, your doctor may allow you to bear weight after surgery in a surgical shoe for several weeks. 

3) Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Some people may experience entrapment of the tibial nerve along the inside of their ankle. This is called “tarsal tunnel syndrome”. The syndrome can be uncomfortable and can cause pain with every step.

Causes

  • Flatfoot structure

When you have a flat foot structure, you likely roll inwards as you walk. This can cause the tibial nerve to impinge. This can cause nerve pain in your foot. 

  • Varicose Veins
varicose veins ankle

As mentioned before, anything that causes pressure along the tibial nerve can cause tarsal tunnel symptoms. Varicose veins are often prominent along the inside of the ankle. This in itself can pinch the nerve and cause shooting pain to extend into the toes.

  • Soft tissue mass

 Soft tissue masses are commonly seen in the ankle, such as fatty tumors (lipomas) and ganglion cysts, which can pinch the tibial nerve and cause pain.  

Symptoms

  • Burning and tingling pain on the inside of the foot and ankle
  • Stabbing pain that starts at the ankle and extends towards your toes

If you would like to read more about stabbing foot pain on the inside of your foot, check out that blog post here

Diagnosis

Your doctor will perform a physical exam and assess your foot structure. He/she will tap on your tibial nerve and see if you experience shooting pain. This is called a “Tinel’s test” and confirms tarsal tunnel syndrome. Your doctor will order X-rays of your foot to assess your foot structure. An MRI may also be ordered to rule out any soft tissue masses that may be pinching the nerve. 

Occasionally, a Nerve Conduction Test may be ordered to identify nerve impingement.  

Treatment 

Non-Surgical 

Your doctor will want to fix the biomechanics of your foot with orthotics to help alleviate pressure from the nerve. This can be done with over-the-counter arch support or prescription custom orthotic.

Steroid injections and anti-inflammatory medications can be useful to reduce inflammation. This will in turn reduce pain and swelling (6)

Surgical

If conservative therapy fails, your doctor may perform surgery to decompress the tarsal tunnel. This will alleviate pinching of the nerve and pain. Your doctor will likely allow you to go home the same day of surgery and allow gentle weight-bearing to your foot in a cast boot. 

4) Neuritis On The Top Of Your Foot

top of foot pain

Nerve pain on the top of your foot can occur secondary to arthritis. Arthritis in the midfoot is very common. You may notice bumpy bone spurs start to form on the top of your foot over the years. If you experience sharp pain on the top of your foot, it could be irritation of the nerves.

Causes

The nerves that branch on the top of your foot (deep peroneal nerve and superficial peroneal nerve) are fairly superficial. If you have arthritic spurs on the top of your feet, your shoe gear can cause compression of the nerves over the spurs and cause shooting pain. 

Symptoms

  • Burning pain on the top of your foot (especially in the top middle portion of your foot)
  • Stabbing pain on the top of the foot that occurs with walking
  • Tingling pain on the top of your foot 

Diagnosis

Your doctor will order x-rays to assess whether arthritis is visible in the joints of the midfoot. Your doctor will also tap on the different nerves on the top of your foot to try to reproduce the pain. This is a Tinel’s test and normally is not painful in patients who have no nerve impingement. 

Treatment

Non-Surgical

Anything that causes compression on the top of the foot should be removed. If possible, it’s best to obtain extra-depth shoes. Try not to get any shallow shoes that may cause pressure on the top of your foot. This can cause the nerve pain on the top of your foot to worsen due to compression. 

If you have shoes with shoelaces, try skipping tying the laces over the bone spur and the nerve. This can help provide some relief.

You can also obtain Aspercreme with Lidocaine 4% online. This is a fairly effective numbing cream that you can rub on the top of your foot to help with the pain.

Corticosteroid injections are quite beneficial for both arthridities as well as nerve pain. It can help reduce pain and inflammation in both the joints and the nerve. You can resume your activities like normal after the steroid injection.

Surgery

If your symptoms worsen, your doctor may recommend surgery. Your doctor may be able to surgically remove the bone spurs which will over time help with the nerve pain that you experience on the top of your foot (7). You can walk immediately after the surgery. 

However, if your arthritis is severe, and you experience both nerve pain and joint pain, your doctor may fuse your joints. This would require you to stay off your foot in a cast boot for a few weeks.  

5) Baxter’s Neuritis

nerve pain heel

If you experience sharp pain in your heel, it could be Baxter’s neuritis. This is often confused with plantar fasciitis because symptoms may be similar.

Make sure to check out my blog post on the different causes of heel pain here.  

In some people, Baxter’s nerve, which is a branch of the lateral plantar nerve on the bottom of your heel, can become pinched. 

Causes

Certain conditions like an overpronated flatfoot, obesity, and a history of plantar fasciitis can contribute to the impingement of Baxter’s nerve.

Symptoms

  • Sharp pain in the heel
  • Burning pain in the heel that isn’t relieved with rest

Diagnosis

Your doctor will perform a physical exam and order an X-ray to assess your foot structure. An MRI may be ordered which can help identify Baxter’s nerve as well.

Treatment

Non-Surgical
anti inflammatory

Anti-inflammatory medications can help to reduce pain associated with Baxter’s neuritis. A corticosteroid injection can also be beneficial to help reduce pain and inflammation in the nerve.

Your doctor may also recommend custom orthotics to change how you walk and alleviate pain in the heel.

Cushion heel cups such as “Tuli’s” heel cups can be beneficial to cushion your heel when you walk. 

Surgical

In some cases, your doctor may choose to decompress Baxter’s nerve surgically to help alleviate symptoms. If there’s a chance that your heel spur may be pinching on the nerve, it may be removed as well.

6) Joplin’s Neuritis

If you experience sharp or burning pain on the inside of your great toe joint, you may be experiencing Joplin’s neuritis. Joplin’s neuritis is an irritation of the branch of the medial plantar nerve that occurs on the inside of the great toe. 

Causes

medial foot pain

Joplin’s neuritis is usually due to entrapment of the medial plantar nerve (6)

Say for instance you have a large bunion, you may experience sharp pain on the inside of your great toe when wearing certain shoes.

Narrow shoe gear that is constrictive can cause Joplin’s neuritis.

Symptoms

  • Sharp pain on the inside of your great toe 
  • Burning pain on the inside of the foot that extends into the toe
  • Numbness on the inside of the great toe joint

Diagnosis

Your doctor can diagnose Joplin’s neuritis with a clinical exam. He/she may tap on the nerve and if you experience pain, it’s considered a positive Tinel’s test. Your doctor will also obtain X-rays to determine what is causing the nerve to impinge. Is it a bunion or is it a mass in the great toe that could be causing impingement?

Treatment

Non-Surgical options
  • Wider shoes

Make sure you wear shoes that are wide enough and not causing nerve impingement to the great toe joint. Go to a running shoe store, and get the length and width of your feet measured to make sure the shoe is a good fit. 

  • Manual massages to the great toe joint

 Mobilizing both the soft tissue and the nerve can help decrease symptoms.

  • Anti-inflammatory medications such as Motrin

 Anti-inflammatories are beneficial to help reduce pain and swelling in the joint area.

  • Corticosteroid injections

 Corticosteroid injections directly into the nerve can be beneficial to help decrease pain.

7) Superficial Peroneal Nerve Neuritis

The superficial peroneal nerve is the nerve that runs on the front of the ankle into the top outer portion of your foot. The nerve branches and goes into your toes. This nerve can be compressed or injured and cause pain.

Causes

The superficial peroneal nerve can become traumatized if you sustain an ankle sprain or an ankle fracture. You may experience irritation to the nerve due to injury and swelling in the leg/ankle. 

The superficial peroneal nerve may also become pinched in some people who participate in activities such as dance, running and other sports.  

Symptoms

Burning, shooting pain in the front of your ankle and the top of your foot. 

Diagnosis

Your doctor will obtain your history and perform a physical exam. Tinel’s test may be positive. Occasionally, Nerve Conduction Testing may be ordered to check for impingement. 

Treatment

Over-the-counter Aspercreme with Lidocaine 4% cream and Lidocaine 5% prescription patches may be beneficial to help reduce the sharp pain on the top of your foot and ankle. 

Steroid injections can be very beneficial to reduce pain in the ankle as well. 

In rare cases, surgery can be performed to decompress the nerve if symptoms are severe.

8) Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

crps foot

Complex regional pain syndrome is a condition where you may experience chronic pain in the foot secondary to trauma, or nerve injury (8). CRPS type 1 can occur secondary to tissue injury in the foot, and CRPS type 2 can occur secondary to specific nerve injury in the foot. 

This can occur due to the body’s increased response to pain. The exact mechanism of CRPS is still unclear. 

Symptoms

  • Severe, sharp, burning foot pain 

Pain may be severe even with light touch to the foot 

  • Skin changes in the foot

Skin color changes may occur due to CRPS. You may notice a blue, purple, or red discoloration of the skin 

  • Temperature changes in the foot

One foot may be warmer or colder than the other

  • Swelling in the foot

Swelling in the foot that stays persistent

  • Muscle weakness

Muscle weakness can occur in the foot that is affected by CRPS. The pain associated with CRPS can cause you to walk less, making muscle weakness even worse. 

Diagnosis

Your doctor will perform a physical exam and obtain an X-ray to assess your foot. Your doctor may also want to obtain an NCV/EMG to assess the nerves and muscles. 

Treatment

physical therapy

CRPS is complex and can be difficult to treat. Your doctor may recommend physical therapy to help reduce pain and improve mobility in your foot. 

Topical pain medication such as Lidocaine can be beneficial to help reduce pain.

Your doctor may also suggest that you go to the pain clinic to be assessed by physicians who specialize in chronic pain. If your pain is severe, a sympathetic nerve block may be helpful. There is where medication is injected into the spine to block nerve pain in the foot.

9) Other Conditions That Can Cause Nerve Pain on the Foot

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient. If you are deficient in vitamin B12, the protective myelin sheath of the nerves can become damaged. This can cause neuropathy symptoms in the feet.

Inherited disorders

Inherited disorders like Charcot Marie Tooth can cause neuropathy in the feet due to changes in the genes that occur that lead to nerve damage. 

Alcohol-induced neuropathy

Excessive alcohol use over time can be toxic to nerve tissue and cause nerve pain on the foot. 

Medications

Certain medications, like some chemotherapy drugs, can cause neuropathy in the feet. 

Infections

Some infections like Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV can cause nerve damage and nerve pain in the feet. 

Autoimmune disease

autoimmune disease

Certain autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, and Lupus can cause nerve pain on the foot. This occurs because your immune system attacks your tissues, causing nerve damage.

Idiopathic neuropathy

question

In some people, the cause of nerve pain on the foot may be unknown. This is called “Idiopathic neuropathy”. Idiopathic neuropathy affects 5-8 million Americans (10). It’s important to speak to your doctor if you experience sudden and progressive nerve pain so your doctor can rule out the commonly known causes of neuropathy, as well as treat your symptoms. 

Pain management for people who suffer from neuropathy requires a team of specialists (9). This includes your Family physician, Podiatrist, Pain Management Physician, and Neurologist. All of these specialists can offer their expertise to come up with the best solution for you.  

You simply don’t have to live with chronic nerve pain on the foot. Talk to your doctor about your options. 

Do you have nerve pain in your feet? What has helped you the most? I would love to hear your thoughts. Leave a comment below!

If you found this article on nerve pain on the foot helpful, please make sure to SHARE it!

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References: 

  1. Volmer-Thole, M., & Lobmann, R. (2016). Neuropathy and diabetic foot syndrome. International journal of molecular sciences17(6), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926450/
  2. Ennion, L., & Hijmans, J. (2019). Improving vibration perception in a patient with type 2 diabetes and sensory peripheral neuropathy. The South African Journal of physiotherapy75(1), 602. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajp.v75i1.602
  3. Bates, D., Schultheis, B. C., Hanes, M. C., Jolly, S. M., Chakravarthy, K. V., Deer, T. R., Levy, R. M., & Hunter, C. W. (2019). A Comprehensive Algorithm for Management of Neuropathic Pain. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.)20(Suppl 1), S2–S12. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnz075
  4. Groninger, H., & Schisler, R. E. (2012). Topical capsaicin for neuropathic pain #255. Journal of palliative medicine15(8), 946–947. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462404/
  5. Matthews, B.G., Hurn, S.E., Harding, M.P. et al. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for common plantar digital compressive neuropathy (Morton’s neuroma): a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Foot Ankle Res 12, 12 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-019-0320-7
  6. McCrory, P., Bell, S., & Bradshaw, C. (2002). Nerve entrapments of the lower leg, ankle, and foot in sport. Sports Medicine32(6), 371-391.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul-
  7. Bawa V, Fallat LM, Kish JP. Surgical Outcomes for Resection of the Dorsal Exostosis of the Metatarsocuneiform Joints. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016 May-Jun;55(3):496-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26872522/
  8. Shim, H., Rose, J., Halle, S., & Shekane, P. (2019). Complex regional pain syndrome: a narrative review for the practicing clinician. British journal of anesthesia123(2), e424–e433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2019.03.030
  9. Tavee, J., & Zhou, L. (2009). Small fiber neuropathy: a burning problem. Cleve Clin J Med76(5), 297-305. https://northwestern.cloud-cme.com/assets/northwestern/pdf/Small%20Fiber%20Neuropathy_10.25.2017.pdf
  10. Singer, M. A., Vernino, S. A., & Wolfe, G. I. (2012). Idiopathic neuropathy: new paradigms, new promise. Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System17, 43-49.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/j.1529-8027.2012.00395.x

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Vaishnavi Bawa
Dr. Vaishnavi Bawa is a Podiatrist who specializes in treating foot and ankle pathology. LifesLittleSteps mission is to educate the public about foot health in an easy-to-understand manner using evidence-based medicine.
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